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Level 3 Lesson 40.2 – 菜一上桌,大家的筷子就都拿起来了。

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GRAMMAR: Complex Complements of Direction in Chinese,复合趋向补语

In this HSK 3 video lesson we'll learn how to use Simple Complements of Direction to form Complex Complements of Direction, and also how to use the later in sentences.

  • 简单趋向补语 (Jiǎndān Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Simple Complements of Direction)
  • 复合趋向补语 (Fùhé Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complex Complements of Direction)

 

(aGrammar 1. 简单趋向补语 vs. 复合趋向补语 

Jiǎndān Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ vs. Fùhé Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Simple Complements of Direction vs. Complex Complements of Direction

 

简单趋向动词 (Jiǎndān Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Simple Directional Verbs):

Below are the 简单趋向动词 (Jiǎndān Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Simple Directional Verbs) that we have learned before:

lái

to come


to go
shàng

to move upwards
xià

to move downwards
jìn

to enter
chū

to exit
huí

to return
guò

to go pass; to go through


to rise from low to high
dào

to arrive

 

简单趋向补语 (Jiǎndān Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Simple Complements of Direction):

When Simple Directional Verbs are used after a verb (phrase), as its Complement, it's called a 简单趋向补语 (Jiǎndān Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Simple Complements of Direction):

v. + 来 v. + 去 v. + 上 v. + 下 v. + 进 v. + 出 v. + 回 v. + 过 v. + 起 v. + 到

 

复合趋向动词 (Fùhé Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Complex Directional Verbs):

复合趋向动词 (Fùhé Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Complex Directional Verbs) are structured like this: Simple Direction Verb + 来 or 去:

shàng

to move upwards
xià

to move downwards
jìn

to enter
chū

to exit
huí

to return
guò

to go pass; to go through


to rise from low to high
dào

to arrive
shànglái
上来
to come up
xiàlái
下来
to come down
jìnlái 
进来
to come in
chūlái
出来
to come out
huílái
回来
to come back
guòlái
过来
to come over (here)
qǐlái
起来
to rise up; to get up
dào...lái
到…来
to come over (and) arrive...
shàngqù
上去
to go up
xiàqù
下去
to go down
jìnqù
进去
to go in
chūqù
出去
to go out
huíqù
回去
to go back
guòqù
过去
to go over (there)
/ dào...qù
到…去
to go over (and) arrive...

 

复合趋向补语 (Fùhé Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complex Complements of Direction):

When Complex Directional Verbs are used after a verb (phrase), as its Complement, it's called a 复合趋向补语 (Fùhé Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complex Complements of Direction):

v. + 上来 v. + 下来 v. + 进来 v. + 出来 v. + 回来 v. + 过来 v. + 起来 v. + 到...来
v. + 上去 v. + 下去 v. + 进去 v. + 出去 v. + 回去 v. + 过去 / v. + 到...去

 

Grammar 2. 复合趋向动词的用法

Fùhé Qūxiàng Dòngcí De Fòngfǎ ▸ Usage of Complex Complements of Direction

 

(1) Verb Predicate + Complex Complement of Direction

In the above structure,

  • the verb predicate tells us the method or nature of motion, whether it is by running, jumping, taking, calling, borrowing, returning, paddling, or standing
  • the Complex Complements of Direction tell us about the direction or path of the motion.

For example,

  • Tā de chē shì cóng fùjìn kāi guòlái de.
    他的车是从附近开过来的。
    (It was) from (a) nearby-place (that) his car (was) driven-(with the direction of)-“going pass (the distance)”-(and)-“coming towards (here)”.
  • Gāngqín bìxū jīntiān bān guòqù.
    钢琴必须今天搬过去。
    (The) piano must today (be) moved-(with the direction of)-“going pass (the distance)”-(and)-“going (over there)”.
  • Tā cóng yī lóu pǎo shànglái cānjiā huìyì.
    他从一楼跑上来参加会议。
    He from (the-)1(st)-Floor ran-(with the direction of)-“moving up”-(and)-“coming (over here)” to join (the) meeting.
  • Yì píng píjiǔ gāng hē xiàqù, tā jiù zuì le.
    一瓶啤酒刚喝下去,他就醉了。
    One bottle (of) beer just (has been) drunk-(with the direction of)-“going down”-(and)-“going away from (here)”, he “then” got-drunk (already).
  • Cài yí shàng zhuō, dàjiā de kuàizi jiù dōu ná qǐlái le.
    菜一上桌,大家的筷子就都拿起来了。
    “Once immediately after” (the) dish (has been) moved-onto (the) table, everyone’s chopsticks “then” all (were) picked-(with the direction of)-moving up.

 

(2) Verb Predicate + Complex Complement of Direction Character 1 + Object +

Complex Complement of Direction Character2

When the verb predicate is followed by an Object that indicates location or place, the Object needs to be put in-between the two characters of the Complex Complement of Direction.

For example,

  • Lǎorén zǒu shàng fēijī lái.
    老人走飞机
    (The) senior-person walked-(with the direction of)-“going onto” (the) plane.
  • Mǎ pǎo xià shān qù le.
    马跑了。
    (The) horse ran-(with the direction of)-“going down from” (the) mountain.
  • Duìbuqǐ, dòngwù bù néng dài jìn jiǔdiàn lái.
    对不起,动物不能带酒店
    Sorry, animals cannot (be) brought-(with the direction of)-“coming into” (the) hotel.

 

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