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Level 3 Lesson 20.2 – 下大雨了,我们都跑上了车。

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GRAMMAR: Complements of Direction in Chinese,趋向补语 "上" "下" "过".

In this HSK 3 video lesson we'll review 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction) in Chinese and we'll also learn three more verbs that can be used as 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction).

  • 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction)
  • 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction) "上" "下"
  • 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction) "过"

 

GRAMMAR


Summary. 趋向补语 

Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction

  See also 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction).
  See also Summary of 补语 (Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements).

 

(1) 趋向动词 (Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Directional Verbs)

Verbs that suggest "direction of motion" are 趋向动词 (Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Directional Verbs).

Before we have learned these 趋向动词 (Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Directional Verbs):

  • láito come (towards)
  • to go (away from)
  • jìnto enter 
  • chūto exit 
  • huíto return 
  • dàoto arrive 

 

(2) 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction)

A 趋向动词 can be used as 趋向补语, following this structure:

VERB + Directional Verb = VERB + Complement of Direction

VERB1 verb2
Verb Directional Verb used as Complement of Direction of VERB1
suggests manner or nature of the motion

(by walking, climbing, running, or driving? returning, or leaving?...)

suggests the direction or path of this motion

(coming towards, or going away? entering or exiting? ascending or descending?…)

 

趋向动词 (Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Directional Verbs) , , , , , can all be used as 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction):

Verb Complement of Direction Verb-Complement Phrase
chū

to exit
lái

to come (towards)
chū lai

to exit "coming out of"
jìn

to enter


to go (away from)
jìn qu

to enter "going into"
zǒu

to walk
jìn

to enter
zǒu jin

to walk "into"


to take
chū

to exit
ná chu

to take "out"
jiē

to pick-up
huí

to return
jiē hui

to pick-up "back"
sòng

to send
dào

to arrive
sòng dao

to send "arriving to"

 

Grammar 1. 趋向补语 "上" "下"

Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ "shàng" "xià"▸ Complements of Direction "上" "下"

  See also 方位词 (Fāngwèi Míngcí ▸ Locality Nouns): 上 下 里 外 前面 后面.

上 and 下 can be 方位名词 (Fāngwèi Míngcí ▸ Locality Nouns) and also 趋向动词 (Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Directional Verbs):

方位名词
Locality Nouns
surface; the area above the area underneath
趋向动词
Directional Verbs
to move upwards; to ascend to move downwards; to descend

 

趋向动词 (Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Directional Verbs) , can be used as 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction):

Verb Complement of Direction Verb-Complement Phrase


to climb
shàng

to move upwards
pá shang

to climb "upwards"


to climb
xià

to move downwards
pá xia

to climb "downwards"
fàng

to place; to put
shàng

to move upwards
fàng shang

to put "up(to)"
fàng

to place; to put
xià

to move downwards
fàng xia

to put "down"

 

Let's see some example sentences:

(1) 跑上 / 跑下

  • Xià dàyǔ le, wǒmen dōu pǎo shang le chē.
    下大雨了,我们都跑上了车。
    (It is) raining heavy, we all ran “ascending”(/onto) (the) vehicle.
  • Chē dào zhàn le, wǒ pǎo xia le chē.
    车到站了,我跑下了车。
    (The) vehicle (has) arrived (the) station, I ran-“descending”(/down) (from) (the) vehicle.

 

(2) 走上 / 走下

  • Shuō wán zàijiàn, Gāo Shūshu zǒu shang le fēijī.
    说完再见,高叔叔走上了飞机
    (After) finishing-saying goodbye, Uncle Gao walked “ascending”(/onto) (the) plane.
  • Zǒu xia fēijī yǐhòu, tā qù le yí xià xǐshǒujiān.
    走下飞机以后,他去了一下洗手间。
    (In the) time (that is) after walking “descending”(/down) (from) (the) plane, he went to (the) restroom “really quick”.

 

(3) 放上 / 放下

  • Fàncài fàng shang zhuō le.
    饭菜放上桌了。
    (The) food (has been) put “ascending”(/onto) (the) table (already).
  • Bǎ qián fàng xia!
    把钱放下!
    (-) “Disposing of” (the) money (-) put “descending”(/down)! [Put down the money! / Drop the money!]

 

Grammar 2. 趋向补语 "过"

Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ "guò"▸ Complements of Direction "过"

  See also Dynamic / Aspect Particle 过.

过 can be 动态助词 (Dòngtài Zhùcí ▸ Dynamic Particle; Aspect Particle ) and also 趋向动词 (Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Directional Verbs):

动态助词
Dynamic Particle; Aspect Particle
suggesting that the action or event is something that has ever happened before
趋向动词
Directional Verbs
(1) to move from one place to another; to pass by, to pass through, or to go by a place
(2) to move from one time point to another time point; to go through/pass a time (period/point)

 

趋向动词 (Qūxiàng Dòngcí ▸ Directional Verbs) 过 can be used as 趋向补语 (Qūxiàng Bǔyǔ ▸ Complements of Direction):

Verb Complement of Direction Verb-Complement Phrase
zǒu

to walk
guò

to pass
zǒu guo

to walk “passing”
fēi

to fly
guò

to pass
fēi guo

to fly "passing"
yóu

to swim
guò

to pass
yóu guo

to swim "passing"

 

Let's see some example sentences:

  • Tā cóng wǒ pángbiān zǒu guo.
    他从我旁边走过。
    He walked passing from (the) side (of) me.
  • Xiǎo niǎo fēi guo nà zuò shān, kàn bu jiàn le.
    小鸟飞过那座山,看不见了。
    (The) little bid flew passing that “zuo” (of) mountain, (and) is-not-able-to (been) seen (already).
  • Nǐ xiāng bu xiāngxìn, wǒ yóu guo zhè tiáo xiǎo hé zhǐ yào jǐ fēnzhōng.
    你相不相信,我游过这条小河只要几分钟。
    (Do) you believe (it or) not, me swimming passing this “tiao” (of) small river only needs a-few minutes.

 

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