In today's video lesson we’ll learn about the Aspect Particle 过 in Chinese and compare the Aspect Particle 过 vs 了. We'll also learn about how to use the Suffix 老 and Suffix 小 before one's family name.
An Aspect Particle in Chinese is also known as the Dynamic Particle.
The Dynamic / Aspect Particle 过 is attached to the Verb, to suggest that the action or event is something that has ever happened before. We can use it in this structure:
If we want to say a negative sentence, we can follow this structure
We have learned about the Dynamic / Aspect Particle 了 before, which usually caused confusion with Dynamic / Aspect Particle 过 for many students.
Generally, the main difference is that 过 marks that the action is "something that has ever happened before", while 了 marks that the action "is completed". If we break it down in details, there are mainly three differences.
(1) Verb过 is used for action in the past, while Verb了 can be used for actions in the past, present and in the future.
(2) Verb 过, the action or event is something that happened in the past, and it does not last until right now, and verb了, the action or state can last all the way until present.
(3) Verb 过 does not mean there is a result because the action happened, but verb 了, there is definitely a result.
When casually addressing people in Chinese, we can put the Suffix 老 and Suffix 小 before one's family name.
Usually, 老 is for people who are noticeably older, more senior and/or more superior than us. While 小 is for people who are noticeably younger, junior and/or inferior than us.
Both Suffix 老 and Suffix 小 can be used among friends, acquiesces and coworkers. However, when used among work place, it suggests that the situation is relaxed, informal and has some personal touch.
Also an entry-level employee might call their direct superior 老X, and the direct superior might call the entry-level employee 小X. The President/CEO of the company might also call an entry-level employee 小X, however, the same entry-level employee almost never get to call the President/CEO 老X.
Up til this lesson, we have learned three usages of Measure Word 件. It can be used as the Measure Word for: