In this video lesson we'll learn how to use Locality Nouns 左边, 右边, 旁边, 这边, 那边 哪边 to describe specific places locations in Chinese. We'll also learn how to say to and towards in Chinese with Preposition 向 and 往, and compare Existential Sentence with 是 and Existential Sentence with 有. We'll also learn an important grammatical rule: the Attributive goes before the phrase that it modifies in Chinese.
We've learned a group of Locality Nouns before in Level 1, today we have another group. The chart below are both groups of Locality Nouns.
|~边 (biān)||~面 (miàn)||~里 (li)||~儿 (r)|
|left; the left side||zuǒbian
|right; the right side||yòubian
|side (not center)||pángbiān
|up; the top||shàngbiān
|bottom; the underneath||xiàbiān
All these Locality Nouns can either be used by themselves, or used after another Noun, Pronoun to form a Phrase that suggests Location, let’s just call it Locality Phrase.
(1) Locality Nouns used by themselves
(2) Locality Nouns used after another Noun/Pronounce to form a Locality Phrase
A Locality Noun (Phrase) can be used as different Sentence Elements in Chinese.
(1) as the main Subject
(2) as the main Object
(3) as the Object of a Preposition, forming a Prepositional Phrase
(4) as the Attributive
向 and 往 are both Prepositions suggesting "facing the direction of, or towards the direction of". 向 is a little bit more likely to be used in formal situations and written language. 往 can be more casual.
Both 向 and 往 can be used before a Locality Noun (Phrase) to form a Prepositional Phrase that tell us about "facing/towards the direction of some place/location".
We've learned Existential Sentence with 有. "somewhere 有 something" to say "there are something in somewhere". We can also say an Existential Sentence with 是, "somewhere 是 something".
If we want to say the difference between using 有 and 是, here's some informtaion
|Existential Sentence with 有||Existential Sentence with 是|
|Meaning||"there is something, at this somewhere"||"it is this something that is in this place"|
|Emphasis||more that the something is part of this place, or part of the scene of this place||an objective judgement of stating the fact that something is in this place|
Let's compare these two pairs of sentences.
The Attributive goes before the Phrase that it modifies is a "golden grammatical rule" in Chinese.
Typically, No. 1 the Attributive goes before the phrase that it modifies, and No.2 the Adverbial goes before the Predicate.
(1) the Attributive goes before the phrase that it modifies
(2) the Adverbial goes before the Predicate