Grammar 1: Comparison in Chinese with 比 and 没有 · HSK 2
We can use 比 bǐ to make a comparison in Chinese, to say that A is more ... than B, using this structure:
A 比 B + adj.
- zhège háizi bǐ nàge háizi dà
this "ge" child (is) bigger/older than that "ge" child
- zhàngfu bǐ qīzi máng
(the) husband (is) busier than (the) wife.
If we want to say a negative sentence with this structure, we must put 不 before 比, for example,
- zhège háizi bù bǐ nàge háizi dà
this "ge" child (is) not bigger/older than that "ge" child
- zhàngfu bù bǐ qīzi máng
(the) husband (is) not busier than (the) wife.
However, there is a more commonly used structure to say A is not as...as B, or A is less... than B, it is
A 没有 B + adj.
- Lǐ Jīnglǐ méiyou Zhōu Jīnglǐ máng
Manager Li is not as busy as Manager Zhou
Manager Li is less busy than Manager Zhou
- wǒ qùnián méiyǒu jīnnián máng
I last year (am) not as busy as this year
I last year (am) less busy than this year
- tā zài gōngsī méiyǒu zài xuéxiào kuàilè
he in (the) company (is) not as happy as at school
he in (the) company (is) less happy as at school
Grammar 2: 快乐 vs 高兴 in Chinese · HSK 2
We have learned how to say happy in Chinese before, which is 高兴 gāoxìng, 快乐 kuàilè also means happy in Chinese. The difference is that 高兴 is more of a temporary mood of being happy and contend and 快乐 is more of a mental state, like having the feeling of happiness.
- nǐ wèishénme měitiān dōu bú kuàile
why (are) you not happy all (of) every day
- tā zuótiān méiyǒu jīntiān gāoxìng
he yesterday (was) not as happy as today
Also, for us to say "happy birthday", we have to use 快乐 instead of 高兴.
- shēngrì kuàilè
Grammar 3: Verb Phrase used as the Subject or the Object in Chinese · HSK 2
In English when you want to use a verb phrase to be the Subject or the Object, you usually say its "-ing" form, or add "to" in front of the verb.
- drinking tea is healthier than drinking cola.
- I’d like to drink tea.
But in Chinese, we don’t have to change anything, just say the verb phrase as it is. For example,
(1) Verb Phrase used as the Subject
- dǎ Hànzì hěn kuài
typing Chinese characters (is) very fast
- zuò huǒchē tàimànle
taking train (is) too slow
(2) Verb Phrase used as the Object
- nǐ zhàngfu dǎsuàn xiūxi ma
(does) your husband plan to take a break
- wǒ fēicháng bù xǐhuan jiābān
I very much not like working overtime