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Level 3 Lesson 14.2 – 离合词总结

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GRAMMAR: 离合词总结 (Líhécí Zǒngjié ▸ Summary of Detachable Compounds)

In this HSK 3 video lesson we'll learn about how to correctly use 离合词 (Líhécí ▸Detachable Compounds) in Chinese.

GRAMMAR


Summary. 离合词

Líhécí ▸Detachable Compounds

Generally a 离合词 (Líhécí ▸Detachable Compound) is a two-character word. It can be used in two ways. The two characters together can be used as a verb, and also, the two characters can be used as a Verb-Object Phrase, with the first character as a verb and the second character as the Object.

We have learned many 离合词 before, these are some examples:

刮风    下雨    下雪    画画    唱歌    跳舞    散步
走路    游泳    跑步    打球    开车    洗澡    起床
睡觉    说话    吵架    见面    帮忙    聊天    请客
生病    生气    分手    结婚    离婚    毕业    上课
上班    加班    上学    看书    打字    写字    考试

These 离合词 can be used in two ways: as two-character verbs, or verb-object phrases.

 

Grammar 1. 离合词的重叠

Líhécí De Chóngdié▸Reduplication of Detachable Compounds

We've learn Reduplication of Verbs before. A 离合词 can also be Reduplicated.

  See also Reduplication of Verbs (I) and Reduplication of Verbs (II).

In a 离合词, it was the first character carries the “action verb” meaning, therefore only the first character is repeated. For example,

离合词

Reduplication of 离合词

VV V一V V了V
xǐzǎo
洗澡
to take (a) shower/bath
xǐ xi zǎo
洗洗澡
to take (a) shower/bath “really quick”
xǐ yi xǐ zǎo
洗一洗澡
to take (a) shower/bath “really quick”
xǐ le xǐ zǎo
洗了洗澡
å took (a) shower/bath “really quick”
jiànmiàn
见面
to meet face
jiàn jian miàn
见见面
to meet “really quick”
jiàn yi jiàn miàn
见一见面
to meet “really quick”
jiàn le jiàn miàn
见了见面
met “really quick”

For example,

  • Xīwàng shénme shíhou néng zài hé nín jiàn jian miàn.
    希望什么时候能再和您见见面。
    (I) hope (that) some time (I) can meet with you again.
  • Jīntiān de gōngzuò zuò bu wán le, wǎnshang wǒ děi jiā yi jiā bān.
    今天的工作做不完了,晚上我得加一加班。
    Today’s work (is) not able to be done-(with the result of)-being-finished (already), (in the) evening I need to work overtime (for) “a little bit”.
  • Wǒ gēn nǎinai dào shān xia sàn le sàn bù.
    我跟奶奶到山下散了散步。
    I went to the mountain-foot with (my) grandma to take a walk “really quick”.

 

Grammar 2. 离合词 - V不V / V没V

Líhécí - V不V / V没V ▸ Detachable Compounds with V不V / V没V

We've learned how to ask questions with the V-not-V form. A 离合词 can also be used in this way.

  See also V不V.

In a 离合词, it was the first character carries the “action verb” meaning, therefore only the first character is repeated. For example,

离合词

V不V / V没V for 离合词

bìyè
毕业
to graduate
bì méi bì yè
毕没毕业?
to (have) graduate (or) not?
guāfēng
刮风
to blow wind
guā bu guā fēng
刮不刮风?
to blow (or) not blow wind?
chǎojià
吵架
to verbally fight
chǎo méi chǎo jià
吵没吵架?
to (have) verbally fought (or) not (have) verbally fought?
kǎoshì
考试
to take test
kǎo bu kǎo shì
考不考试?
to take-test (or) not take-test exam?

 

For example,

  • Nǐmen jiànmiàn de shíhou liáo méi liáotiān?
    你们见面的时候聊没聊天?
    (Did) you guys chat (or) not chat (in the) time (when you guys) met?
  • Tā zhèyàng xiào nǐ, nǐ shēng bu shēngqì?
    他这样笑你,你生不生气?
    He laughed-at you “(in) this manner”, are you upset (or) not upset?
  • Jǐ diǎn le? Nǐ shuì bu shuìjiào?
    几点了?你睡不睡觉?
    What o’clock (is it) (now)? (Do) you sleep (or) not sleep?

 

Grammar 3. 离合词 - 宾语

Líhécí - Bīnyǔ ▸ Detachable Compounds with Objects

If there is an Object, it can be used in two ways, depending on the situation:

  1. it can be used before the 离合词, but with a preposition in front of the Object, forming a Prepositional Phrase.
  2. it can be used inserted between the 离合词, with 的 going after the Object.

离合词

离合词 with Objects

jiànmiàn
见面
to meet
gēn tā jiànmiàn
跟他见面
with him to meet
 ✗见面他
chǎojià
吵架
to verbally fight
hé tā chǎojià
和她吵架
with her to verbally fight
 ✗吵架她
bāngmáng
帮忙
to help (a)-busy-(situation)
bāng yéye de máng
帮爷爷的忙
to help grandpa
 ✗帮忙爷爷
shēngqì
生气
to generate-anger
shēng fùmǔ de qì
生父母的气
to be upset at the parents
 ✗生气父母

 

For example,

  • Wǒ yǒu diǎnr xǐhuan hé Zhāng Lǎoshī liáotiān.
    我有点儿喜欢和张老师聊天。
    I “king of” like chatting with Teacher Zhang.
  • Jì de bang wǒ de máng, bié wàng le!
    记得帮我的忙,别忘了!
    Remember to help me, (do) not forget (it)!

 

Grammar 3. 离合词的位置

Líhécí De Wèizhì ▸ Position Of 离合词 - In Relation To Other Structures

Some structures need to be used after the 离合词, while some structures need to be used by inserted within a detached 离合词. And also some structures can be used both ways.

If 离合词 is represented with this structure: "V+O", the position of it can be as follows:

  1. V + O + other structure
  2. V + other structure + O
  3. V + O + other structure, and also V + other structure + O

 

We will go over different structures and how they are used with 离合词 one by one:

 

(1) Complements of State can only be used after the 离合词

For example,

  • Wǒ shuìjiào jīngcháng shuì de tèbié chà.
    我睡觉经常睡得特别差。
    I often sleep really bad.
  • Tā xiězì jīngcháng xiě de hěn bù qīngchu.
    他写字经常写得很不清楚。
    He often writes very not clear(ly).

 

(2) Aspect Particles 着,了, 过 need to be used inserted within a detached 离合词

For example,

  • Chāng zhe gē tiàowǔ fēicháng lèi.
    唱着歌跳舞非常累。
    Dancing(, while) singing(, is) very tiring.
  • Bì le yè yǐhòu nǐ dǎsuàn qù nǎlǐ gōngzuò?
    毕了业以后你打算去哪里工作?
    Where (do) you plan to go to work (in the) time (that is) after graduating?
  • Jiǔ’èr nián yǐhòu wǒmen méiyǒu zài jiàn guo miàn.
    九二年以后我们没有再见过面。
    (In the) time (that is) after year 92 we (had) not again met.

 

(3) Complements of Time-Duration and Complements of Frequency with 离合词

Complements of Time-Duration:

shuì bā ge xiǎoshí jiào
shuì bā ge xiǎoshí de jiào
shuìjiào shuì bā ge xiǎoshí
睡八个小时觉
睡八个小时的觉
睡觉睡八个小时
to sleep (for) eight “ge” (of) hours

shēng liǎng ge yuè bìng
shēng liǎng ge yù de bìng
shēngbìng shēng liǎng ge yuè
生两个月病
生两个月的病
生病生两个月
to get sick (for) two “ge” (of) months

  • Wǒ gēn tā liáo le yí ge xiǎoshí tiān.
    Wǒ gēn tā liáo le yí ge xiǎoshí de tiān.
    Wǒ gēn tā liáotiān liáo le yí ge xiǎoshí.
    我跟他聊了一个小时天。
    我跟他聊了一个小时的天。
    我跟他聊天聊了一个小时。
    I chatted with him (for) one “ge” (of) hour.
  • Wǒ měitiān chūqu pǎo sì wǔ shí fēnzhōng bù.
    Wǒ měitiān chūqu pǎo sì wǔ shí fēnzhōng de bù.
    Wǒ měitiān chūqu pǎobù pǎo sì wǔ shí fēnzhōng.
    我每天出去跑四五十分钟步。
    我每天出去跑四五十分钟的步。
    我每天出去跑步跑四五十分钟。
    I every day go out to run (for) (about) forty (or) fifty minutes.

 

Complements of Frequency:

qǐng yí cì kè
qǐngkè qǐng yí cì
请一次客
请客请一次
to invite(/treat) guests (for) one time

guā yī zhèn fēng
guāfēng guā yí zhèn
刮一阵风
刮风刮一阵
to blow wind (for) one “duration-of-time”

 

  • Wǒ gēn ta liáo guo yí cì tiān.
    Wǒ gēn tā liáotiān liáo guo yí cì.
    我跟他聊过一次天。
    我跟他聊天聊过一次。
    I (have) chatted with him (before) (for) one time.
  • Jīnnián de shí’èr yuè tèbié lěng, xià le jǐ cháng xuě.
    Jīnnián de shí’èr yuè tèbié lěng, xiàxuě xià le jǐ cháng.
    今年的十二月特别冷,下了几场雪。
    今年的十二月特别冷,下雪下了几场。
    This year’s December (was) especially cold, (it) snowed (for) a few “chang(/process-of-event)”.

 

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