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Level 3 Lesson 7.2 – 他是难过,不是生气。

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GRAMMAR: 1.The 是 Sentence Indicating Reason And/Or Explanation; 2. Reduplication of Verb: V了V Structure

In this HSK 3 video lesson we'll learn how to use a 是字句 (Shìzìjù ▸ The 是 Sentence) to indicate reason and/or explanation, we'll also learn about the V了V structure, which is a form of 动词的重叠 (Dòngcí de Chóngdié ▸ Reduplication of Verbs).

  • 是字句 (III) indicating reason and/or explanation. See also 是字句 (I) and (II).
  • 动词的重叠 (II): V了V structure. See also (I).

GRAMMAR


Grammar 1. A是B

A shì B▸ A is because of B

This structure can be considered as a type of 是字句(Shìzìjù ▸ The 是 Sentence).

In this lesson, this type of 是字句 in dictates "reason and/or explanation":

☑ 是字句 refers to Sentences where "是" is used as the Verb Predicate. There are many different types of 是字句. Previously, we have learned:

We can also add the negative word 不 in front of 是 to say a negative sentence, following this structure:

A 不是 B

A búshì B ▸ A is not because of B

Dramatically:

  • A is 主语 (Zhǔyǔ ▸ Subject),“是” is 谓语动词 (Wèiyǔ Dòngcí ▸ Verb Predicate),B is 宾语 (Bīnyǔ ▸ Object)
  • B can be a  (Cí ▸ Word), a  短语 (Duǎnyǔ ▸ Phrase), or a 句子 (Jùzi ▸ Sentence)

Meaning-wise: 

  • B provides a reason, or an explanation for A
  • the tone can sometimes be a little defensive

Below are example sentences:

  • Nì zhème nánguò shì wèishénme?
    你这么难过是为什么?
    You (being) so sad “is (because of)” why?
  • Wǒ shì bù zhīdào, suǒyǐ wènwen nǐ.
    我是不知道,所以问问你。
    I “is (because)” (that I do) not know, so (I)asked you “really quick”.
  • Tā bú shì zhēnde yào gēn nǐ líhūn, tā zhùyào shì tài shēngqì le.
    她不是真的要跟你离婚,她主要是太生气了。
    HShe (being like this) not “is (because)” really plans to get divorce with you, she being like this) mainly “is (because)” (she is) too angry.
  • Bàba dào Shànghǎi shì qù gōngzuò, bú shì wánr.
    爸爸到上海是去工作,不是玩儿。
    Dad going to Shanghai “is (because)” (he) goes (there) to work, not “is (because)” he goes there to) have fun.

 

Grammar 2. 动词的重叠 Reduplication of Verbs (II): V了V

Some verbs can be reduplicated in the form V了V structure to indicate that

  1. the action takes only a short amount of time and/or
  2. the action is done only for a limited amount of times
  3. the action has already been done

The V了V structure is usually used for narration.

For the V了V structure , the verbs are duplicated in the following ways:

单音节词 (Dānyínjí Cí ▸ One-character Verb) 

  • 听 - 听了听
  • 想 - 想了想
  • 笑 - 笑了笑

双音节词 (Shuāngyínjí Cí ▸ Two-character Verb) 

  • 介绍 - 介绍了介绍
  • 练习 - 练习了练习
  • 休息 - 休息了休息

离合词 (Líhé Cí ▸ Two-character Detachable Compound Verbs)

  • 唱歌 - 唱了唱歌
  • 散步 - 散了散步
  • 游泳 - 游了游泳

 

Below are example sentences to study Reduplication of Verbs - V了V:

  • Yéye xiào le xiào, duì wǒ shuō: “Wǒ xiāngxìn nǐ!”
    爷爷笑了笑,对我说:“我相信你!”
    Grandpa smiled “really quick”, (and) said to me , “I trust you!”
  • Yè Jīnglǐ tīng le tīng wǒmen de jièshào, méiyǒu shuō bù, yě méiyǒu shuō hǎo.
    叶经理听了听我们的介绍,没有说不,也没有说好。
    Manager Ye listened to our introduction “really quick”, (they did) not say no, (did) not say yes either.
  • Nǎinai zuò zài yǐzi shang xiūixi le xiūxi.
    奶奶坐在椅子上休息了休息。
    Grandma sat on (the) chair (and) rested "really quick".
  • Wǒ yǐqián chéngjì bù hǎo, jīnnián nǔ le nǔlì, kǎo de búcuò.
    我以前成绩不好,今年努了努力,考得不错。
    Before my score (was) not good, this year (I) worked hard “for a little bit”, (I) took (the) test not bad.
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