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Level 3 Lesson 11.2 – 认识的人那么多,有几个是真朋友?

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GRAMMAR: Wh- Rhetorical Questions in Chinese with Question Pronouns

In this HSK 3 video lesson we'll learn about 反问句 (fǎnwènjù ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions) in Chinese. We'll learn how to ask a 反问句 with 疑问代词 (yíwèn dàicí ▸ Question Pronouns). We will be using the following 疑问代词:

  • 什么
  • 为什么
  • 怎么
  • 哪里 哪儿 什么地方
  • 什么时候
  • 多少

GRAMMAR


Summary. 反问句

a. 反问句 (fǎnwènjù▸Rhetorical Questions)

反问句 (fǎnwènjù Rhetorical Questions) in Chinese there are four types of 反问句:

  1. 是非问句反问句 (shìfēiwènjù fǎnwènjù▸Yes-no Rhetorical Questions)
  2. 特指问句反问句 (tèzhǐwènjù fǎnwènjù▸Wh- Rhetorical Questions)
  3. 正反问句反问句 (zhèngfǎnwènjù fǎnwènjù▸Affirmative-negative Rhetorical Questions)
  4. 选择问句反问句 (xuǎnzéwènjù fǎnwènjù▸Alternative Rhetorical Questions)

We have learned the first one 是非问句反问句 (shìfēiwènjù fǎnwènjù ▸ Yes-no Rhetorical Questions) in Lesson 9. In today's lesson we'll learn the second one 特指问句反问句 (tèzhǐwènjù fǎnwènjù ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions).

 

b. 特指问句反问句 (tèzhǐwènjù fǎnwènjù▸Wh- Rhetorical Questions)

In a Wh- Rhetorical Question, we use a Question Pronoun. A Wh- Rhetorical Question is used:

  • not to expect an answer, instead it’s making a statement
  • with a negation to emphasize affirmation; and with affirmation to emphasize negation

 

Grammar 1. 反问句 - 疑问代词“谁”

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Shéi" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 谁

  • Yīnwèi zhème dà shēng, shéi shuì de zháo?
    音乐这么大声,谁睡得着?[睡不着]
    (The) music (is) so loud, who is able to fall sleep? [is not able to fall sleep]
  • Shéi méiyǒu yī liǎng ge ’àihào?
    谁没有一两个爱好?[都有爱好]
    Who (does) not have one (or) two hobbies? [(people) all have hobbies]
  • Jǐ shí nián yǐqián de shìqing, shéi hái jìde?
    几十年以前的事情,谁还记得?[不记得]
    Things (of) (the) time (before) a few ten years, who still remembers (it)? [(does) not remember]

 

Grammar 2. 反问句 - 疑问代词“什么”

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Shénme" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 什么

  • Nǐ dōu sì shí jǐ suì le, kěshì shénme gōngzuò zuò hǎo guo?
    你都四十几岁了,可是什么工作做好过?[都没做好过]
    You (are) already forty-something years old, but what job (has been) ever done well (by you)? [all (jobs) (have) not (been) done well (before)]
  • Yéye suīrán lǎo le, dàn shénme shìqing bú jìde?
    爷爷虽然老了,但什么事情不记得?[都记得]
    Grandpa though (is) old (now), but what things (does he) not remember? [(grandpa) remembers (them) all]
  • Shénme gōngzuò bù xīnkǔ?
    什么工作不辛苦?[都辛苦]
    What job (is) not painstaking? [(jobs are) all painstaking]

 

Grammar 3. 反问句 - 疑问代词“哪”

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Nǎ" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 哪

  • Nǎ ge ’àihào bù huāqián?
    哪个爱好不花钱?[都花钱]
    Which “ge” (of) hobby (does) not (make people) spend money? [all (hobbies) (make people) spend money]
  • Nǐ de shēngrì wǒ nǎ cì wàngjì guo?
    你的生日我哪次忘记过?[没有忘记过]
    Your birthday (-) which time (have) I forgotten (it)? [(I have) not forgotten (it)]
  • Zhè xiē huā nǎ duǒ bú piàoliang?
    这些花哪朵不漂亮?[都漂亮]
    These flowers (-) which “duo” (of them) (is) not pretty, who is able to fall sleep? [(these flowers are) all pretty]

 

Grammar 4. 反问句 - 疑问代词“为什么”

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Wèishénme" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 为什么

  • Nǐ ràng wǒ bāng tā de máng, nǐ wèishénme bù bāng?
    你让我帮她的忙,你为什么不帮?[你应该帮]
    You ask me to help her (out), why (do) not you help (her)? [you should help (her)]
  • Zhè jiàn shì hé nǐ méiyǒu guānxì, wǒ wèishénme yào gàosu nǐ?
    这件事和你没有关系,我为什么要告诉你?[不应该告诉你]
    This “jian” (of) thing (-) (does) not have relationship with you, why (do) I need to tell you (about it)? [(I) should not tell you]
  • Zhè xiē táng wèidào zhème hǎo, nǐ wèishénme bú ’ài chī?
    这些糖味道这么好,你为什么不爱吃?[你应该爱吃]
    These candies (-) (the) flavor (is) this good, why (do) not you love eating (them)? [you should love eating (them)]

 

Grammar 5. 反问句 - 疑问代词“怎么”

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Zěnme" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 怎么

  • Tāmen shì shénme guānxì, wǒ zěnme zhīdào?
    他们是什么关系,我怎么知道?[我不知道]
    They are (in) what (kind of) relationship, how (would) I know? [I (do) not know]
  • Wǒ zěnme huì wàngjì ná xíngli?
    我怎么会忘记拿行李?[我不会忘记]
    How would I forget to get (the) luggage? [I will not forget]
  • Wǒ zěnme kěnéng huā le nàme duō qián?
    我怎么可能花了那么多钱?[没花那么多]
    How (would) I “being possibly”(可能) (have) spent that much money. [(I did) not spend that much]

 

Grammar 6. 反问句 - 疑问代词“哪里 / 哪儿 / 什么地方

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Nǎlǐ / Nǎr / Shénme Dìfang" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 哪里 / 哪儿 / 什么地方

Nǎlǐ mǎi de dào zhème kě’ài de shǒutào? Wǒ zìjǐ zuò de.
Nǎr mǎi de dào zhème kě’ài de shǒutào? Wǒ zìjǐ zuò de.
Shénme dìfang mǎi de dào zhème kě’ài de shǒutào? Wǒ zìjǐ zuò de.
哪里买得到这么可爱的手套?我自己做的。
哪儿买得到这么可爱的手套?我自己做的。
什么地方买得到这么可爱的手套?我自己做的。 [买不到]
Where are (people) able to buy gloves this cute? (They are something that) I make (by my)self. [cannot be bought]

 

Jiéhūn zhème jiǔ le, wǒ nǎlǐ duì nǐ bù hǎo?
Jiéhūn zhème jiǔ le, wǒ nǎr duì nǐ bù hǎo?
Jiéhūn zhème jiǔ le, wǒ shénme dìfang duì nǐ bù hǎo?
结婚这么久了,我哪里对你不好?
结婚这么久了,我哪儿对你不好?
结婚这么久了,我什么地方对你不好?[我对你很好]
To (have) been married (for) thig long (already), (in) what aspect (am) I not good “in treating” you? [I am very good to you]

 

Zhōngguó dà shì dà, dàn wǒ nǎlǐ méi qùguo?
Zhōngguó dà shì dà, dàn wǒ nǎr méi qùguo?
Zhōngguó dà shì dà, dàn wǒ shénme dìfang méi qùguo?
中国大是大,但我哪里没去过?
中国大是大,但我哪儿没去过?
中国大是大,但我什么地方没去过?[都去过了]
(Admitting the fact that) China is big, but where (have) not I been to? [(I have) been to all (places)]

 

Grammar 7. 反问句 - 疑问代词“什么时候

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Shénme Shíhou" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 什么时候

  • Wǒ shénme shíhou shēng guo nǐ de qì?
    我什么时候生过你的气?[没生过你的气]
    When (have) I (ever) gotten mad at you? [(I have) not gotten mad at you]
  • Nǐ shénme shíhou xiāngxìn guo wǒ?
    你什么时候相信过我?[你没相信过我]
    When (have) you (ever) trusted me? [you (have) not trusted me (before)]
  • Wǒ shénme shíhou bù nǔlì?
    我什么时候不努力?[我很努力]
    When (am) I not hardworking? [(I am) very hardworking]

 

Grammar 8. 反问句 - 疑问代词“

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Jǐ" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 几

  • Xiànzài shì shàngbān shíjiān, bàngōngshì yǒu jǐ ge rén? Dàjiā dōu qù nǎr le?
    现在是上班时间,办公室有几个人?大家都去哪儿了?[办公室人很少]
    Now is work hour, how many people are there (in the) office? Where (has) everyone all gone? [there are very few people (in the) office]
  • Zhèr de cài wèidào nàme nánchī, yǒu jǐ ge rén chī guo yǐhòu huì zài lái?
    这儿的菜味道那么难吃,有几个人吃过以后会再来?[很少有人会再来]
    (The) dishes here (are) that bad-tasting, how many “ge” (of) people would there be (who) come again (in the) time (that is) after eating? [there are very few people (who) would come again]

 

Grammar 9. 反问句 - 疑问代词“多少

Fǎnwènjù - Yíwèndàicí "Duōshao" ▸ Wh- Rhetorical Questions with Question Pronoun 多少

  • Wǒ shuō le duōshao cì le? Nǐ zěnme yòu wàng le?
    我说了多少次了?你怎么又忘了?[我说了很多次]
    How many times (have) I said (it)? How come you forget (about it) again? [I (have) said (it) many times]
  • Fēnshǒu yǐhòu, wǒ yǒu guo duōshao ge shuì bu zháo de wǎnshang? Tā yǒngyuǎn bú huì zhīdào.
    分手以后,我有过多少个睡不着的晚上?他永远不会知道。[有过很多个睡不着的晚上]
    (In the) time (that is) after breaking up, how many “ge” (of) not-able-to-fall-asleep nights (have) I had? He will forever not know. [(I) had many sleepless nights (like that)]

 

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