Level 3 Lesson 18.2 – 墙上一共只挂着一副画。

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GRAMMAR: 1. 存在句 Existential Sentences in Chinese  2. The Structure "多……,少……".

In this HSK 3 video lesson we'll learn about 存在句 Existential Sentences in Chinese  and the Structure "多……,少……“.

  • 存在句 (Cúnzài Jù ▸ Existential Sentences)
  • 多 + v. (phrase), 少 + v. (phrase)



Grammar 1. 存在句

Cúnzài Jù▸Existential Sentences

  See also (1) Existential Sentences in Chinese with 有 (I), and (2) Existential Sentences in Chinese with 有 (II).

We have learned Existential Sentences with 有 before, in Existential Sentences with 有, we follow this structure:

Somewhere ++ Something/Someone

Here "有" means "to exist", so Existential Sentences with 有 tell us that: something or someone "exists" in/on/at some place.

In today's lesson we'll learn another type of Existential Sentence, we follow this structure:

Somewhere + v. + Something/Someone

This type of Existential Sentences also indicate that someone or something "exists" in/on/at some place.  But we use a specific verb to tells us more information about in what way or in what manner the item or person exist in that place.

For example,

Chuán shang kěyǐ zuò liù ge rén.
(There) can (be) six “ge” (of) people “sit” (on the) boat-surface.

Usually the verbs are followed by Particles 着, 了, 过 indicates the Aspect of the Verb:

Somewhere + v.着 / v.了 / v.过 + Something/Someone

For example,

  • Bīngxiāng li fàng zhe yì bēi pútaozhī.
    (There is) one cup (of) grape-juice “being putting” (in the) inside (of the) refrigerator. [ the juice is being put there at the moment, because 着 indicates “in progress and continuing”]
  • Nàbiān zhàn le yí wèi niánqīng de ’āyí.
    (There is) one “wei” (of) young auntie “having been standing” (over) there. [ as opposed to no one sitting there, because 了 indicates the completion of an action/event]
  • Zhè miàn qiáng shang guà guo yì fú huà.
    (There used to be) one “fu” (of) painting “(once) was hung” (on) this “mian ”(/surface) (of the) wall-surface. [ the painting is not hanging there anymore, because 过 indicates “something ever happened before”]


Grammar 2. 多……,少……。[+ v.(phrase), 少 + v.(phrase) ]

Duō……,shǎo……。 ▸ To do... more, (and) to do... less.

In this structure, 多 and 少 are used as the Adverbial to modify the verb (phrases) following them.

  • 多 suggests "to do something" more
  • 少 suggests "to do something" less


(1) "多……,少……" used together

  • Wǒ dǎsuàn yǐhòu duō yùndòng, shǎo wánr diànnǎo.
    I plan to (in the) future exercise “more (frequently)”, (and) play computer “less (frequently)”.
  • Zuò zhè dào cài yào duō fàng táng, shǎo fàng yán.
    Making this “dao” (of) dish requires putting-in sugar “more (in amount)”, (and) putting-in slat “less (in amount)”.


(2) "多……" used alone

  • Wǒ zhǐ xīwàng nǐ néng duō lǐjiě wǒ yì xiē.
    I just hope (that) you can understand/sympathize me (to the extent of)-some “more”.
  • Zhè cì kǎoshì hěn nán, wǒ děi duō zhǔnbèi yí xià.
    (The) test this time (is) very difficult, I need to prepare “really quick” “more”.


(2) "少……" used alone

  • Nǐmen yǐhòu shǎo chǎojiào, háizi tīngdào le bù hǎo.
    You guys (in the) future verbally-fight “less”, (the) kids hearing (it) (is) not good .
  • Nǐ dōu yǒu xīn nánpéngyou le, wǒmen yǐhòu shǎo jiànmiàn ba.
    You already have (a) new boyfriend, (let) us meet “less” (in the) future.


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