30% off and full access to 300+ videos

Level 3 Lesson 4.2 – HSK不但考了,而且成绩是班里最好的。

Restricted
Oops...Members Only!

GRAMMAR: 1. 施事主语 vs. 受事主语; 2. 不但……而且…… "not only...but also..." in Chinese

In this HSK 3 video lesson we'll learn about the differences between 施事主语 vs. 受事主语. We'll also learn how to use the structure 不但……而且…… to say "not only...but also..." in Chinese.

  • 施事主语 vs. 受事主语
  • 不但……而且……

GRAMMAR


Grammar 1. 施事主语 vs. 受事主语

Shīshì Zhǔyǔ vs. Shòushì Zhǔyǔ ▸ Subject that performs an action vs. Subject that receives an action

In Chinese there can be two types of 主语 (Zhǔyǔ ▸  Subject), 施事主语 (Shīshì Zhǔyǔ ▸ a Subject that  performs an action) and 受事主语 (Shǒushì Zhǔyǔ ▸ a Subject that receives an action).

施事主语 example sentences:

In the sentence below, 你 is the Subject of the sentence, and because the action 拿 is performed by 你, 你 is a 施事主语.

Nǐ ná yǎnjìng le ma?
拿眼镜了吗?
(Did) you take (the) glasses?

In the sentence below, 他 is the Subject of the sentence, and because the action 说 is performed by 他, 他 is a 施事主语.

Tā shuō Pǔtōnghuà shuō de tèbié hǎo.
他说普通话说得特别好。
He speaks Standard Chinese very well.

受事主语 example sentences:

In the sentence below, 眼镜 is the Subject of the sentence. The action 拿 is performed by someone not mentioned in the sentence, but the action 拿 is received by 眼镜. Therefore, 眼镜 is a 受事主语.

Yǎnjìng ná le ma?
眼镜拿了吗?
(Have) the glasses (been) taken?

In the sentence below, (他的)普通话 is the Subject of the sentence. The action 说 is not performed, but received by 普通话. Therefore, 他的普通话 is a 受事主语.

Tā de Pǔtōnghuà shuō de tèbié hǎo.
他的普通话说得特别好。
His Standard Chinese (is) spoken very well.

 

In Chinese, 受事主语 is used A LOT MORE than 被动句 (Bèidòng Jù ▸ Passive Sentences), which, grammatically can be considered as the equivalent of The Passive Voice in English. Below are more examples.

受事主语

Shòushì Zhǔyǔ ▸ Subject that receives an action

  • Zhè tào fángzi yǐjīng mài le.
    这套房子已经卖了。
    This “set” (of) house/apartment (has) already (been) sold.
  • Kùzi huàn le ba, tài zāng le.
    裤子换了吧,太脏了。
    Pants (let them) (be) changed, (they are) too dirty.
  • 《Pūtōnghuà》Dì shí’èr kè yǐjīng xué guo le, Shísān Kè hái méi xué.
    《普通话》第十二课已经学过了,十三课还没学。
    Lesson 12 (of) Standard Chinese (has been) learned (before) (already), Lesson 13 (has) still not (been) learned.

 

Grammar 2. 不但……而且……

búdàn……érqiě…… ▸ not only...but also...

We can use 不但……而且 to say "not only...but also..." in Chinese. When we say "不但A而且B", what is stated in B has to go further than what is stated in A.

 ☑ The last pair of conj. that are usually used together is 虽然 and 但是.

However, 虽然 and 但是 can only be used to link two 单句 (Dānjù ▸ Simple Sentence) together, to form a 复句 (Fùjù ▸ Complex Sentence). While 不但 and 而且 can be used to link  (Cí ▸ Word), 短语 (Duǎnyǔ ▸ Phrase) and 单句 (Dānjù ▸ Simple Sentence).

Grammatically, 不但 and 而且 are both 连词 (Liáncí ▸ conj.). , we can use them

  1. to link two  (Cí ▸ Word) or two 短语 ( Duǎnyǔ ▸ Phrase) together to form a 单句 (Dānjù ▸ Simple Sentence), or
  2. to link two 分句 (Fēnjù ▸ Clause; a Simple Sentence in a Complex Sentence) to form a 复句 (Fùjù ▸ Complex Sentence).

 

(1) 不但……而且…… linking two words/phrases:

  • Zhèr de shēnghuó bùdàn fāngbiàn, érqiě piányi.
    这儿的生活不但方便而且便宜。
    Life here (is) not only convenient but also inexpensive.
  • Xiǎo Dài búdàn hěn niánqīng 'érqiě hěn piàoliang.
    小戴不但很年轻而且很漂亮。
    Little Dai (is) not only young but also pretty.

 

(2) 不但……而且…… linking two clauses:

  • Yéye niánqīng de shíhou búdàn hěn shuài, érqiě duì nǎinai tèbié hǎo.
    爷爷年轻的时候不但很帅,而且对奶奶特别好。
    Grandpa(,) when (he was) young(,) (he was) not only very handsome, but also very good to grandma.
  • Cài búdàn zuò le, érqiě jiǔ yě zhǔnbèi le.
    不但做了,而且酒也准备了。
    Not only (have the) dishes (been) made, but also (the) wine (has been) prepared.
  • Wǒ búdàn sòng tā qù jīchǎng le, érqiě tā huílai de shíhou wǒ yě qù jiē tā le.
    不但送他去机场了,而且他回来的时候我也去接他了。
    I not only took him to (the) airport, but also when he came back I also went picking him up.
Lesson Content
0% Complete 0/1 Steps
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Scroll to Top