In this HSK 3 video lesson we'll learn about the differences between 施事主语 vs. 受事主语. We'll also learn how to use the structure 不但……而且…… to say "not only...but also..." in Chinese.
In Chinese there can be two types of 主语 (Zhǔyǔ ▸ Subject), 施事主语 (Shīshì Zhǔyǔ ▸ a Subject that performs an action) and 受事主语 (Shǒushì Zhǔyǔ ▸ a Subject that receives an action).
In the sentence below, 你 is the Subject of the sentence, and because the action 拿 is performed by 你, 你 is a 施事主语.
Nǐ ná yǎnjìng le ma?
(Did) you take (the) glasses?
In the sentence below, 他 is the Subject of the sentence, and because the action 说 is performed by 他, 他 is a 施事主语.
Tā shuō Pǔtōnghuà shuō de tèbié hǎo.
He speaks Standard Chinese very well.
In the sentence below, 眼镜 is the Subject of the sentence. The action 拿 is performed by someone not mentioned in the sentence, but the action 拿 is received by 眼镜. Therefore, 眼镜 is a 受事主语.
Yǎnjìng ná le ma?
(Have) the glasses (been) taken?
In the sentence below, (他的)普通话 is the Subject of the sentence. The action 说 is not performed, but received by 普通话. Therefore, 他的普通话 is a 受事主语.
Tā de Pǔtōnghuà shuō de tèbié hǎo.
His Standard Chinese (is) spoken very well.
❖ In Chinese, 受事主语 is used A LOT MORE than 被动句 (Bèidòng Jù ▸ Passive Sentences), which, grammatically can be considered as the equivalent of The Passive Voice in English. Below are more examples.
We can use 不但……而且 to say "not only...but also..." in Chinese. When we say "不但A而且B", what is stated in B has to go further than what is stated in A.
| ☑ The last pair of conj. that are usually used together is 虽然 and 但是.
However, 虽然 and 但是 can only be used to link two 单句 (Dānjù ▸ Simple Sentence) together, to form a 复句 (Fùjù ▸ Complex Sentence). While 不但 and 而且 can be used to link 词 (Cí ▸ Word), 短语 (Duǎnyǔ ▸ Phrase) and 单句 (Dānjù ▸ Simple Sentence).
Grammatically, 不但 and 而且 are both 连词 (Liáncí ▸ conj.). , we can use them